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lower-limb prosthesis; wearable activity monitors; metabolic cost; 2MWT; oxygen consumption; actigraphy; accelerometer


Step counts and oxygen consumption have yet to be reported during the 2-min walk test (2MWT) test in persons with lower-limb amputations (LLA). The purpose of this study was to determine step counts and oxygen consumption during the 2MWT in LLA. Thirty-five men and women walked for two minutes as quickly as possible while wearing activity monitors (ActiGraph Link on the wrist (LW) and ankle (LA), Garmin vivofit3 on the wrist (VW) and ankle (VA), and a modus StepWatch on the ankle (SA), and a portable oxygen analyzer. The StepWatch on the ankle (SA) and the vivofit3 on the wrist (VW) had the least error and best accuracy of the activity monitors studied. While there were no significant differences in distance walked, oxygen consumption (VO2) or heart rate (HR) between sexes or level of amputation (p > 0.05), females took significantly more steps than males (p = 0.034), and those with unilateral transfemoral amputations took significantly fewer steps than those with unilateral transtibial amputations (p = 0.023). The VW and SA provided the most accurate step counts among the activity monitors and were not significantly different than hand counts. Oxygen consumption for all participants during the 2MWT was 8.9± 2.9 mL/kg/min, which is lower than moderate-intensity activity. While some may argue that steady-state activity has not yet been reached in the 2MWT, it may also be possible participants are not walking as fast as they can, thereby misclassifying their performance to a lower standard.

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This article was originally published as:

Smith, J.D.; Guerra, G. Quantifying Step Count and Oxygen Consumption with Portable Technology during the 2-MinWalk Test in People with Lower Limb Amputation. Sensors 2021, 21, 2080.

Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).

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