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Learning Styles, VARK, Hybrid instruction, Business Finance


We analyze the effect of student preferred learning style on course performance in an introductory finance class using the VARK learning styles survey developed by Fleming and Mills (1992) and validated by Leite (2010). Learning styles refer to the preferred way used by learners to understand, process, and retain information. The VARK framework classifies learners as Visual, Auditory, Reading, Kinesthetic, or Multimodal (combination of the previous) learning styles preferences. Using a sample of 79 non-traditional undergraduate students enrolled in business finance classes at a public urban university in the U.S. Southwest, we find that student preferred learning style has no impact on student performance, as measured by overall course grade. Prior cumulative GPA is the main determinant of course grade suggesting that students with higher GPA are likely to perform well in class, regardless of learning style preference. Results are robust after controlling for variables known in the literature to be potential determinants of grade, such as age, gender, ethnicity, dependents, or hours enrolled in the semester.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2653260


Originally published as:

Calafiore, P. (2019). Learning Styles and Class Performance in Hybrid Finance Classes. Journal of Management Science and Business Intelligence, 4 (1), 1-4. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2653260

Copyright © 2019 by authors and IBII. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0).