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emotional–behavioral disorders, cross-age tutoring, peer-mediated, disabilities


The purpose of this quantitative synthesis was to evaluate the effectiveness and related outcomes of the cross-age tutoring model when students with or at risk for emotional–behavioral disorders (EBD) serve as tutors. Research questions were posed to identify the shared and unique components (e.g., dosage, tutor training) of the cross-age tutoring model; the extent to which students with EBD can effectively serve as cross-age tutors (i.e., fidelity of implementation and tutees’ improvement); the extent to which the model was effective in promoting desired academic and/or social–emotional–behavioral outcomes for tutees and tutors with EBD; the generalization, maintenance, and social validity of the effects; and the overall methodological quality and rigor of the included studies. Findings showed common training and instructional components across interventions and that tutors with EBD can implement cross-age tutoring procedures with fidelity. The cross-age model was shown to be effective in promoting academic and social–behavioral skills for the tutees as well as the tutors. Evidence for effectiveness in improving self-concept and attitude of the tutor with EBD was inconsistent. Implications and future research considerations are discussed.


This is the author accepted manuscript version of:

Watts, G. W., Bryant, D. P., & Carroll, M. L. (2019). Students With Emotional–Behavioral Disorders as Cross-Age Tutors: A Synthesis of the Literature. Behavioral Disorders, 44(3), 131-147.

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